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Chromosome glossary

Nucleus  An organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

DNA  (Deoxyribonucleic acid): A self-replicating material which encodes hereditary information present in all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. DNA encodes hereditary genetic information using four nucleotides; adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine.

Chromosome  A condensed form of the highly organised structure of nucleic acids and proteins found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Chromatid  One of the two threadlike strands (sister chromatids) into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division.

p arm The short arm of the chromosome (with the exception of a metacentric chromosome which has chromosome arms of equal length).

q arm  The long arm of the chromosome (with the exception of a metacentric chromosome which has chromosome arms of equal length).

Centromere  A primary constriction which separates the p arm from the q arm and holds the pair of sister chromatids together. A region of α satellite DNA sequences. The centromere is the point at which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.

Telomere  A compound structure at the end(s) of a chromosome, consisting of repetitive nucleotide sequences.

Gene  A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is known to determine some characteristics of the offspring. A gene consists of a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that encode the synthesis of a gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule.


Regulatory abbreviations

IFU  Instructions For Use. May also be referred to as a pack insert.

IVD In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device. IVDs placed on the market in the European Union must be CE marked in accordance with the appropriate EU legislation.

RUO  For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

UDI  Unique Device Identification/Identifier.


CytoCell catalogue product numbers explained

LPH  Haematology probes.

LPS  Solid tumour and haematopathology probes. Optimised for formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. It is more difficult for the probe to reach the target DNA in FFPE tissue, so pre-treatment steps are required.

LPD  Dual use probes. Optimised for both peripheral blood/bone marrow and FFPE tissue.

LPE  Chromosome enumeration probes.

LPU  Microdeletion probes.

LPT  Subtelomeric probes.

LPA  Prenatal enumeration kits

LPF  FAST FISH prenatal enumeration kits

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